PHONETIC SYMBOLS FOR CONSONANTS
The most recent version of the IPA has 79 symbols for the phonetic transcription of consonants. The biggest set consists of 69 symbols which represent pulmonic consonants: these are powered by a pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism. In the classic IPA chart below the consonant are ordered in cells resulting from the intersection of rows and columns: the rows represent the different 'manners' of articulation, while the columns represent the different 'places' of articulation. The manners of articulation are ordered from the more constricted articulations (upper rows) to the more open articulations (lower rows). The places of articulation are arranged from left (anterior) to right (posterior).
The non-pulmonic consonants are pronounced on a laryngeal airstream mechanism (implosives & ejectives) or a lingual airstream mechanism (clicks).
The phonetic symbols for clicks are underspecified: they only capture their place of articulation, but do not specify voicing or nasalisation. In a phonetic transcription clicks are commonly specified as voiceless by adding the symbol for the voiceless velar plosive /k/. For a voiced click the symbol for the voiced velar plosive /g/ is added. Nasality in clicks is transcribed by adding the symbol for the voiced velar nasal.
Although the chart suggests that implosives can only be voiced, but voiceless implosives do occur. Curiously, the IPA does not have separate symbols for voiceless implosives. Nevertheless, they do occur contrastively with voiced implosives and voiced pulmonic plosives in languages such as Seereer-Siin in Senegal, and Lendu and Ngiti in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Although in the spirit of the IPA principles, their phonetic contrastiveness would merit separate symbols, currently these sounds are represented by adding a voiceless diacritic to the corresponding symbols for voiced implosives.